The references listed here are but a fraction of the written material on evolution, anthropology, Freudian psychology and schizophrenia research available. I have annotated some of it, but there is so much more, that one would have to dig for oneself in the huge cornucopia of related topics that are available for study. That is why schizophrenia continues to elude. It is a complex condition encompassing a broad range of disciplines. It is my hope the Neanderthal’s Dream: Evolutions and Insanity, will reduce confusion, add a framework with which to proceed, and advance the science of mental illness further than previously known.



Zimmer, C. Smithsonian Intimate Guide to Human Origins. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Madison Press Books, 2005.

Leakey, R. The Origin of Humankind. New York, New York: Basic Books, 1994.

Niederland, WG. The Schreber Case:Psychoanalytic Profile of a Paranoid Personality. New York, New York: Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Company, 1974.

Schreber, DP. Memoirs of My Nervous Illness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988. (A detailed account of schizophrenia from an obsessively detailed individual. Freud then analyzed these memoirs and developed his classic theory of paranoia.)

Chabot, CB. Freud on Schreber:Psychoanalytic Theory and the Critical Act. Amherst, MA: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1982.

Harari, YN. Sapiens:A Brief History of Humankind. New York, New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2015.

Lee, SH, Yoon, SY. Close Encounters with Humankind: A Paleoanthropologist Investigates Our Evolving Species. New York, New York:W.W. Norton and Company, 2018.

Werner, H. Comparative Psychology of Mental Development. New York, New York: International Universities Press, 1948. (An overview of developmental psychology applicable to every element of an evolving system.)

Werner, H and Kaplan, B. Symbol Formation: An Organismic-Developmental Approach to the Psychology of Language. (Very complicated but worth the effort.)

Psychology of Language. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1963.

Freud, S. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. New York: W.W.Norton and Co., 1961. (Describes the tendency of human psyche to seek the lowest level of excitation.)

Freud, S. The Ego and the Id. New York:W.W.Norton and Co., 1960

Freud, S. A General Selection from the Works of Sigmund Freud. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1957.

Freud, S, Three Case Histories. New York:Macmillan Publishing Co., 1963. (Includes the Schreber case.)

Howells, JF, ed. The Concept of Schizophrenia: Historical Perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1991.

Wang, EW. The Collected Schizophrenias. Minneapolis, MN: Graywolf Press, 2019. (An account of one person’s journey through various diagnoses.)

Saks, ER. The Center Cannot Hold: My Journey Through Madness. New York, New York: Hachette Books, 2007. (A most readable and intensely moving chronology of schizophrenia in a gifted person.)

Yeiser, B. Mind Estranged:My Journey from Schizophrenia and Homelessness to Recovery. United States of America, Create Space, 2014. (Another account by a gifted woman of her torturous decline into madness and ultimate recovery.)


Burns, JK. “An Evolutionary theory of schizophrenia: Cortical connectivity, metarepresentation, and the social brain.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2004): 831-885.

Hofman, MA. “Evolution of the human brain:when bigger is better.” Frontiers Neuroanatomy Mar. (2014): PMID 24723857.

Bolu, A, et al. “The ratios of 2nd to 4th digit may be a predictor of schizophrenia in male patients.” Clinical Anatomy 28 (2015): 551-556.

Lesk, S. “A different view of patients with schizophrenia.” Current Psychiatry 17 (2018): e1-e3.

Lesk, S. “Taking Acid.” Letter to the editor, New York Times Book Review, June 24, (2018).

Goff, DC. “Longer duration of untreated psychosis linked to loss of brain volume.” JAMA Psychiatry Feb (2018)

Hacksell, U, et al. “On the discovery and development of pimavanserin: a novel drug candidate for Parkinson’s psychosis.” Neurochem Res 10 (2014):2008-2017.

Sullivan, PF, et al. “Schizophrenia as a complex trait: Evidence from a Meta-analysis of Twin Studies.” Archive Gen Psychiatry 60 (2003):1187-1192.

Joseph, J. “Don Jackson’s “A critique of the literature on the genetics of schizophrenia”: a reappraisal after 40 years.” Genet Soc Gen Psychol Monogr 127 (2001):27-57.

Cardno, AG, Gottesman, ll. Twin Studies of Schizophrenia:from bow and arrow concordances to star wars Mx and functional genomics.” Am J Med Genet 97 (2000):12-7.

Ocklenburg, S, et al. “Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age- A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.” Neuroscience and Biovehavioral Reviews 59 (2015):100-110.

Lothane, Z. “The Teachings of Honorary Professor of Psychiatry Daniel Paul Schreber, J.D., to Psychiatrists and Psychoanalysts, or Dramatology’s Challenge to Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis.” Psychoanalytic Review 98 (2011):775-815.

Schatzman, M. “Paranoia of Persecution: The Case of Schreber.” Int J of Psychiatry 10 (1972): 53-78.

Callier, S., et al. “Evolution and cell biology of dopamine receptors in vertebrates.” Biology of the Cell 95 (2003):489-502.

Vernier, P, et al. “Bioamine Receptors: Evolutionary and functional variations of a structural leitmotiv.” In, “Comparative Molecular Biology,” Pichon, Y. ed. Birkhauser Verlag: Basel, Switzerland, 297-337, 1993.

Vernier P, et al. “The Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons in Parkinson’s Disease: Insights from the Embryology and Evolution of the Mesostriatocortical System.” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1035 (2004): 231-249

Sacheli, MA, et al. “Habitual exercisers versus sedentary subjects with Parkinson’s Disease: Multimodal PET and fMRI study.” Movement Disorders 0 (2018).

Ferre, S. “Mechanisms of the psycho-stimulant effects of caffeine: Implications for substance use disorders.” Psychopharmacology 233 (2016):1963-1979.

Ferre, S, et al. “New Developments on the Adenosine Mechanisms of the Central Effects of Caffeine and Their Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” J of Caffeine and Adenosine Research 8 (2018):121-131.

Qi H, Li S. “Dose-response meta-analysis on coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with risk of Parkinson’s disease.” Geriatr Gerontol Int 14 (2014):430-439.

Dani, JA. “Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Structure and Function and Response to Nicotine.” Int rev Neurobiol 124 (2015):3-19.

Tausk, V. “On the Origin of the “Influencing Machine” in Schizophrenia.” J of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1 (1992):185-206.

Kalmady, SV, et al. “Relationship between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms in Antipsychotic-Naive Schizophrenia.” Front Psychiatry 4 (2013):PMID:23847552.

Wearne, TA, Cornish JL. “A Comparison of Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis and Schizophrenia: A Review of Positive, Negative, and Cognitive Symptomatology.” Front Psychiatry 9 (2018):491.

Llado-Pelfort L, et al. “Effects of Hallucinogens on Neuronal Activity.” Curt Top Behav Neurosci 36 (2018):75-105.

Seeman, P. “Cannibidiol is a partial agonist at dopamine D2High receptors, predicting its antipsychotic clinical dose.” Transl Psychiatry 6 (2016):1-4.

Riga, MS, et al. “The serotonin hallucinogen 5-MeO-DMT alters portico-thalamic activity in freely moving mice:Regionally-selective involvement of 5-Ht1a and 5-HT2a receptors.” Neuropharmacology 142 (2018):219-230.

De Gregoria, D., et al. “D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) as a Model of Psychosis: Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17 (2016):1953-1973.

Brebion, G, et al. “Verbal Fluency in Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients:Different Patterns of Association With Processing Speed, Working Memory Span, and Clinical Symptoms.” Neuropsychology 32 (2018):65-76.

Tikka, S.K., et al. “Schneiderian first rank symptoms in schizophrenia: A developmental neuroscience evaluation.” Int. J. Devel. Neuroscience 50 (2016):39-46.

Heal D.J., et al. “Amphetamine, past and present-a pharmacological and clinical perspective.” J of Psychopharmacology 27 (2013): 479-496.

Huber, R., et al. “Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake.” Cerebral Cortex 23 (2013):332-338.

Commons, K.G., Linnros, S.E. “Delayed Antidepressant Efficacy and the Desensitization Hypothesis.” ACS. Chem Neurosci (2019):A-E.

Zant, J.C, et al. “Increases in extracellular serotonin and dopamine metabolite levels in the basal forebrain during sleep deprivation.” Brain Research 1399 (2011):40-48.

Martiny, K. “Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression.” Dan Med J 64 (2017)

Boland, E.M., et al. “Meta-Analysis of the Antidepressant Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation.” J Clin Psychiatry 78 (2017)

Trautmann, N., et al. “Response to therapeutic sleep deprivation: a naturalistic study of clinical and genetic factors and post-treatment depressive symptom trajectory.” Neuropsychopharmacology 43 (2018):2572-2577.

Wolf, E., et al. “Synaptic plasticity model of therapeutic sleep deprivation in major depression.” Sleep Medicine Reviews 30 (2016):53-62.

Satoh, H., et al. “Downregulation of Dopamine D1-like Receptor Pathways of GABAergic Interneurons in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.” Neuroscience 394 (2018):267-285.

Klein, M.O., et al. “Dopamine:Functions, Signaling, and Associations with Neurological Diseases.” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 39 (2019):31-59.

Pearlson, G.D., Folley B.S. “Schizophrenia, psychiatric genetics and Darwinian psychiatry: an evolutionary framework.” Schizophrenia Bulletin 34 (2008):722-733.

Srinivasan, S., et al. “Genetic Markers of Human Evolution Are Enriched in Schizophrenia.” Biological Psychiatry 80 (2016):284-292.

Uher, R. “Gene-Environment Interactions in Severe Mental Illness.” Front Psychiatry 5 (2014): 48.

Power, R.A., et al. “Fecundity of patients with schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, depression, anorexia nervosa, or substance abuse vs. their unaffected siblings.” JAMA Psychiatry 70 (2013):22-30.

Polimeni, J., et al. “Evolutionary Perspectives on Schizophrenia.” Can J Psychiatry 48 (2003): 34-39.

Uher, R. “The role of genetic variation in the causation of mental illness: an evolution-informed framework.” Molecular Psychiatry 14 (2009):1072-1082.

Crow, T.J. “Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species.” Brain Research Reviews 31 (2000): 118-129.

Crow, T.J. “The missing gene: what happened to the heritability of psychiatric disorders?” Molecular Psychiatry 16 (2011):362-364.

Crow TJ. “March 27, 1827 and what happened later-the impact of psychiatry on evolutionary theory.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biol. Psychiat. 30 (2006): 785-796.

Lowery, R.K., et al. “Neanderthal and Denison genetic affinities with contemporary humans: introgression versus common ancestral polymorphisms.” Gene 530 (2013):83-94.

Berlim, M.T. “The etiology of schizophrenia and the origin of language: overview of a theory.”

Compr Psychiatry 44 (2003):7-14.

Brune, M. “Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma?” Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 28 (2004):41-53.

Hofman MA. “Evolution of the Human Brain: When Bigger is Better.” Frontiers in Neuroanat 8 (2014); 1-12.

Ostler T. “Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.” J Genet Psychol. (2016): 177, 231-243.

Venkatasubramanian, G, et al. “Digit Ratio (2D:4D) asymmetry and Schneiderian first rank symptoms: Implications for cerebral lateralization theories of schizophrenia.” Laterality 16 (2011): 499-512.

Rudan I. “New Technologies Provide Insights into the Genetic Basis of Psychiatric Disorders and Explain their Co-morbidity.” Psychiatry Danub, 22 (2010).

Stabenau JR, Pollin W. “Heredity and Environment in Schizophrenia, Revisited: The Contribution of Twin and High-Risk Studies.” J. Nerv and Mental Dis. 181 (1993): 290-297.

Moser DA, et al. “Multivariate analyses reveal link between brain variance, psychosis.” JAMA Psychiatry (2017).

Cahn W, et al. “Brain Volume Changes in First Episode Schizophrenia; a 1-year Follow-up Study.” Arch. Gen Psychiat. 59 (2002):, 1002-1010.

Lerario a, et al. “Charles Bonnet syndrome: two case reports and review of the literature.” J Neurol 260 (2013): 1180-1186.

Green JR, et al. “Orbitofrontal Lobotomy with reference to effects on 55 psychotic patients.” Presented at the joint meetings of the San Francisco Neurological, Southern California Neurosurgical and western Electroencephalographic Societies, Del Monte Lodge, Pebble Beach California, 1952, 2/29.

Swerdlow NR, et al. “Startle Gating Deficits in a Large Cohort of Patients With Schizophrenia.” Arch Gen Psychiat 63 (2006): 1325-1335.

Takahashi H, et al. “Prepulse Inhibition of Startle Response: Recent Advances in Human Studies of Psychiatric Disease.” Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 201 (2011): 102-111.

Mansbach RS, et al. “Blockade of drug-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle by ziprasidone.” Pharmacy Biochem Behave. 69 (2001): 535-542.

Gebhardt J, et al. “Maturation of prepulse inhibition (PPI) in childhood.” Psychophysiology, 49 (2012): 484-488.

There are many more that have either been tossed or lost. Oh, the cost! (I sound like Dr. Seuss.)